Xilin Gol Grassland is the most important natural ecological barrier in northern China. It plays an important strategic role in developing animal husbandry, protecting biodiversity, conserving soil and water resources, and maintaining ecological balance. As the ecological environment of the grassland is gradually deteriorating due to various reasons, posing a threat to the national ecological security, it is imperative to research and demonstrate key technologies of ecological restoration and reconstruction of degraded grassland. In view of grassland degradation and soil erosion caused by production and construction projects in the Xilin River Basin in the Xilin Gol Grassland of northern China, this study carries out experimental research and integration of key technologies concerning soil erosion control, soil conservation and rapid vegetation establishment of degraded grassland and ecological compensation mechanism for soil and water conservation in grassland affected by production and construction projects.
· Analyzing the soil erosion status of degraded grassland using the “3S” technology;
· Researching the soil erosion control technology for degraded grassland;
· Researching the irrigation regulation technology based on water demand and stability of slope vegetation;
· Researching the soil conservation technology for rapid vegetation establishment;
· Researching the artificial planting stability technology for degraded grassland;
· Researching the ecological compensation mechanism for soil and water conservation in grassland affected by production and construction projects;
· Developing the integrated model and technological demonstration of soil and water conservation for degraded grassland restoration and reconstruction.
· An integrated model of soil and water conservation for degraded grassland restoration and reconstruction has been proposed for the first time, targeting areas affected by wind erosion, water erosion and engineering erosion, according to the types and characteristics of soil erosion in degraded grassland in the Xilin River Basin;
· An ecological replacement scheme of soil and water conservation has been suggested for identified ecological impact zones in the processes of production and construction projects (open-pit mines), which sets down measures for soil erosion control and vegetation restoration of waste-dump slope in large-scale open-pit mines, including Engineering measures (eco-bags, sand barriers and vegetation bags), plant measures (caragana, alfalfa), soil improvement (microbial fertilizer) and irrigation;
· The degraded grassland restoration and reconstruction technology has been clarified, integrating fencing, no-till sowing, dry artificial grassland, artificial grassland irrigation and forage land irrigation;
· An irrigation regulation technology for slope vegetation restoration has been introduced for ecological restoration free from deep seepage and surface runoff generation within the stable safety threshold of remodeled slope.
The degraded grassland restoration technology and the integrated water and soil conservation model have been widely applied in the water conservancy and conservation subproject and the pastoral water saving demonstration subproject of the Beijing-Tianjin sand source control project in the Zhengxiangbai Banner, Keshiketeng Banner and Xilinhot City in the Xilin Gol League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The achievements of irrigation regulation and rapid vegetation establishment in the waste-dump slope of mining areas have been widely and well used in waste-dump control of open-pit mines by Shenhua Shengli Nortel Co., Ltd and Inner Mongolia Datang International Xilinhot Mining Co., Ltd in the Xilinguole League.
Field survey sites in the project area
Drip irrigation test of slope artificial vegetation
Ecological restoration effect of artificial remodeling landscape
Grassland soil erosion monitoring area
Application of integrated soil erosion control technology in the waste-dump of Shenhua open-pit mine