PicNews
Home > PicNews
Fighting Climate Change, IWHR Has a Role to Play
Time: 2020-04-30 | Hits:


The 28th “World Water Day” of the United Nations fell on March 22, 2020. This year’s World Water Day, themed “Water and Climate Change”, calls for putting water resources on the top of the climate change agenda, warns that extreme weather events are making water resources rarer and more unpredictable and that mankind are faced with heavier pollution, stresses that as precious resources for mankind, clean water resources are necessary for the survival of humanity, and reaffirms that mankind needs safe and sustainable management of water resources.

On this special day, “Water Droplet” will take you to China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) to probe into the relationship between water and climate change, and consider how to address and mitigate climate change from the perspective of water resources.

  Global climate change has become an indisputable fact, and extreme weather and abnormal circulation of water droplets will become normal for some time to come. This cannot be changed by the family of water droplets alone, but requires human beings to actively adjust their modes of production and life, so as to be accustomed to such water droplets that already ‘do not play by the rules’, be adapted to and mitigate global climate change and then strike a new balance for the development of human society under new climatic conditions. Hence, excellent scientists and far-sighted representatives from all walks of life all over the world have already taken actions. Today, I’ll take you to meet scientists and engineers at IWHR and see what they have done and are doing for the wellbeing of water droplets and human beings.

How should human beings adapt themselves to climate change?

When climate change becomes a reality, people need to first recognize and strive to be adapted to it and taking active measures to change the status quo. Only by doing so can we buy time for the mitigation of climate change.

1. Research on Climate Change Mechanism

There’s an old Chinese saying goes: “If you know yourself and your enemy, you’ll never lose a battle.” How can we adapt ourselves to climate change? First of all, we should understand the mechanism of interaction between climate change and hydrologic cycle, and to what extent climate change affects river runoff, before we can make effective, reasonable countermeasures.

In this regard, IWHR scientists have delved into the mechanism of interaction between climate change factors at different scales and hydrologic elements.

They have creatively applied the high-precision downscaling technology based on  between stepwise cluster analysis and Copula dynamic coupling statistics to identify the evolution of global water resources, diagnose the development trend of extreme drought and flood events and then analyze the response mechanism of hydrologic processes in a changing environment.

 

Parameter OptimizationRCMs (WRF, PRECIS, RegCM, etc.)+ Land Surface Models
(CLM, MOSES2, Noah, etc.) two-way coupling
Physical process parametric schemes that fit in with the characteristics of different regions in the worldLand Surface ModelsRegional Climate ModelsGlobal Climate Models

△ Optimization of “Atmosphere-Land Surface” physical process parametric and “Drivers-Statistics” downscaling coupling technology

They have established an evaluation model containing a variety of drought indexes and comprehensive drought and flood indicators, and analyzed the evolution characteristics of extreme events such as drought and flood on a global scale and in typical regions. Supported by data resources, research results and cloud platforms, they have also built a cloud platform for data sharing of global water resources and drought-flood map.

Spatial distribution of extreme flood events by numberSpatial Distribution of Global Extreme Drought and Flood EventsChanges in Global Surface Water ResourcesGlobal Subnational Population ChangesGlobal Levels 1-4 River Networks and Regions of Water Resources

△ Integrated evaluation of global surface water resources evolution and drought and flood events

They have conducted research on the response mechanism of hydrologic processes in a changing environment, being able to anticipate corresponding changes of the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in different climate change scenarios. That provides proactive guidance for related human work at all levels, such as policy making, management measures and emergency response.

2. Disaster Warning, Forecasting and Prevention & Control

 Climate change causes changes in global temperature and humidity, leading to frequent occurrences of water-related disasters such as high temperature heatwaves, rainstorms, typhoons and droughts. Reducing disaster losses and safeguarding human life and property safety are fundamental requirements for tackling climate change.

Therefore, IWHR scientists have actively conducted research on flood and drought disasters, working on improving and upgrading technologies for disaster warning and forecasting in order to continuously enhance social resilience to secondary disasters caused by climate change.

Large-scale drought monitoring and forecasting and disaster risk prevention technologies. They have proposed the high spatio-temporal resolution meteorological-hydrological drought index, developed a quantitative analysis and assessment model for large-scale drought events and the comprehensive drought assessment technology taking into account underlying surface conditions, the drought process-based dynamic assessment technology for agricultural, urban and ecological drought risks, and the technology for comprehensive prevention of large-scale drought risks.

 

Drought assessment technology taking into account different underlying surface conditions such as land use, soil, crops and irrigation

 - 说明: 3High-precision drought monitoring technology achieved - 说明: 4Large-scale drought event monitoring, integrated non-linear objective drought identification technology based on three dimensions, duration, intensity, and scope

 - 说明: 2High-precision drought monitoring technology based on high-density ground monitoring, multi-source remote sensing observation data and data integration of land data assimilation system preliminarily put forward - 说明: 11Drought monitoring technology based on satellite remote sensing monitoring, machine learning, deep mining

 - 说明: 1Land surface assimilation system soil moisture data application and observation data deep learning and error correction technology

 - 说明: 1Application of high-density meteorological-hydrological stations; standard climate field building technology - 说明: 1Distribution of national meteorological stations (township-level stations)Distribution of national meteorological stations (county-level stations)

△ Drought monitoring based on high-density meteorological-hydrological and high-definition land data assimilation system

Watershed-scale flood risk assessment system. Targeting typical river basins in China, they have developed the watershed flood risk scenario analysis system and carried out quantitative analysis of watershed flood risk evolution scenarios caused by climate change and human activities, which can help reduce flood losses and support decision making in contingency plans.

△ Flood risks in typical river basins under the sea level rise scenario

Research on the evolution of urban lake areas. Based on multi-source remote sensing data, they have conducted 12 periods of long time series dynamic monitoring of lakes in typical cities during 1973-2015 and carried out quantitative analysis of the impacts of changes in precipitation and temperature and human activities on lake areas.

KilometerLegends
 Regions of decrease
 Regions of increase
 Regions unchanged
1973-2015年武汉市湖泊减少分布图

△ Changes of river and lake areas in typical cities during 1973-2015

Research on urban flood simulation technology and its application. They have overcome problems such as inefficient large-scale urban flood simulation calculations and inadequate engineering solutions, established the one-dimensional model of river channels, region-specific two-dimensional model of land surface, underground pipe network model and the flood analysis model based on the coupling calculation of the above-mentioned factors, which enables full simulation of urban storm flood movements, developed the pilot water-logging warning project as well as the urban river and lake regulation system, enriching the practices of river and lake regulation in typical cities.

Pipe network drainage ability and pipe segment (pump station) discharge process

Channel surface line and section (regulation) process

Surface water logging distribution and local water depth process

△ Calculation results of the urban flood simulation model

3. Water saving in agriculture

 

Abnormal precipitation caused by climate change will trigger uneven distribution of precipitation, leading to droughts and floods and causing direct impact on agricultural production, thus threatening food security. IWHR scientists have carried out R&D of the precise irrigation water-saving technology to provide technological support for agricultural adaptation to the impacts of extreme climate .”

Focusing on precise drip irrigation technologies and products, IWHR experts have established a technical application mode that integrates a series of precise drip irrigation technologies guaranteeing low pressure and high uniformity, providing pressure compensation for broad width, and featuring root-avoiding and anti-clogging, which fit regional characteristics in China and have been promoted and applied to 14.14 million mu (about 2.33 acres) of land in 16 provinces and municipalities all over China, with their influence reaching nearly 30 million mu of water-saving farmland nationwide, direct economic benefits of 6.223 billion RMB and 29.778 billion m3 of water saved.

 Drip irrigation technology model featuring low pressure and high uniformity
 Drip irrigation technology model featuring prevention of root invasion-caused clogging
 Drip irrigation technology model featuring wide pressure compensation

The three application models for precise drip irrigation technologies have been promoted and applied to about 2.33 acres of land in 16 provinces and municipalities including Xinjiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi

△ Application and demonstration of precise drip irrigation achievements

With respect to the impacts of extreme climate on agriculture, IWHR experts have put forward the model of “shallow-wet-dry” alternative irrigation for rice in cold regions, thereby saving averagely 150-200m3 of water per mu and increasing rice production by 5%-10%.

To meet the water-saving needs in arid and semi-arid regions, IWHR experts have developed technologies such as expansion of soil water storage capacity and inter-plant water harvest in fields, established the system of supplementary irrigation in key growing stage of the crops, and formed the deficit irrigation model for arid regions.

To meet the water-saving needs of commercial crops, IWHR experts have developed tubular all-purpose semipermeable membranes made of polymer materials, invented the moistube-irrigation technology, which is also the only modern water-saving irrigation technology invented by China, averagely saving water by 54% and increasing production by 34%.

 

 

 

 

 


△ Moist-tube irrigation system


△ Illustration of moist tube

4. Construction of a Water-Saving Society

 

In order to address the global water crisis under the influence of climate change, society-wide water saving is a top priority.

For this reason, IWHR Scientists have led research on theories, technologies and practices in respect of building a water-saving society in China, broken new ground in the theoretical methods of the whole process efficiency analysis and regulation of the social water circulation, made breakthroughs in a number of key water-saving technologies and processes in key areas, established a hierarchical system of technical standards for water saving, and formed the construction model, price mechanism and institutional plan for a water-saving society.

After 10 years of promotion and application, the market size of China’s water-saving industry has exceeded 500 billion RMB, effectively facilitating a sharp increase of water use efficiency (WUE) nationwide.

GDP(Trillion Yuan)

Integrated water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP: 17m3

 - 说明: 4Penetration rate of domestic water-saving appliances: 95%

 - 说明: 3Reuse rate of industrial water: 90%

 - 说明: 2Utilization coefficient of agricultural irrigation water: 0.69

 - 说明: 1WUE in Tianjin in 2015

Total water consumption (109m3)/water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP (0.1m3)

A rapid increase in WUE

Rapid economic growth

A slight increase in national total water consumption

△ Achievements in construction of a water-saving society

 

How Humans Can Mitigate Climate ChangeThrough scientific research, practice and application by experts in all aspects, human beings deal with the impacts of climate change in an active and scientific manner, observe objective laws, adjust their behaviors, in a bid to seek dynamic balance between man and nature in a changing environment.


How Humans Can Mitigate Climate Change?

 

Adaptation alone will not fundamentally address the threats and challenges posed by climate change, and human beings have to take radical measures to slow down climate change and mitigate its effects, so as to safeguard long-term sustainability of human society.

 

To mitigate climate change, we should fundamentally reduce GHG emissions and cut the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere, which requires the R&D and application of various emission reduction, carbon sink and carbon sequestration technologies and measures.”

1. Exploitation and Utilization of Non-Fossil Energy

IMG_278

 

Hydropower, as an important clean energy, plays a key role in reducing fossil fuel consumption and lowering GHG emissions. As of 2018, the annual hydropower generated globally registered 4.2 TWh, reducing 4 billion tons of CO2 emissions per annum, equivalent to 10% of the global total annual CO2 emissions. According to the statistics of the National Energy Administration (NEA), China’s installed hydropower capacity reached 360 million KWh as at the end of 2019, which accounted for 42.9% of the total installed capacity of non-fossil energy, making important contributions to the mitigation of global climate change.

IWHR undertakes the research on key technological issues in nearly all major water resources and hydropower projects in China, and plays a critical role in scientific and technological support.

It has provided technical basis for addressing sedimentation problems in the Three Gorges Project (TGP);

It has solved complex layout, flood discharge and energy dissipation problems for nearly 100 projects including the TGP, Ertan Hydropower Station and Xiaowan Hydropower Station;

It has established the theories of aseismic design of earth-rockfill dams in China;

It has created the theory and method of high slope stability analysis, set up a large geotechnical centrifuge modeling laboratory and completed tests for numerous hydropower projects;

It has long been engaged in the research on theories and engineering technologies such as reservoir-induced earthquake, seismic ground motion input, structural dynamic response, dynamic characteristics of materials and seismic design of hydraulic structures;
It has edited China’s first Standard for Seismic Design of Hydraulic Structures, and completed the research on seismic safety of ultra-high dams such as the TGP, Xiaowan Hydropower Station and Xiluodu Hydropower Plant;

It has created the mass concrete temperature control theory and analysis method, put forward methods of optimizing arch dams and developed universal procedures, established a system of key technologies for structural safety of high concrete dams, with a raft of research findings incorporated into relevant specifications and applied to more than 100 high dams, including the TGP and Jinping I Hydropower Station;

It has developed a large number of new water-stop, impervious and hydraulic structure materials and new construction technologies, launched new products such as GB series sealing products, epoxy patching materials, special concrete admixtures, which are widely applied to new project construction and reinforcement;

It has successively undertaken optimized design of water turbines for the TGP, Jinping Hydropower Station and other projects;

Its proprietary H9000 computing monitoring system has been successfully applied to over 300 hydropower stations, pumped storage power stations and cascade dispatching projects at home and abroad, including the TGP, Xiluodu Hydropower Plant, Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station and the Brazilian Ilha Hydropower Plant.

△ The iP9000 intelligent integrated platform applied to central control of the TGP

 

High-precision analysis, with a deformation error of less than 3%

 - 说明: 11Fully trackedFully trackedFully trackedFully trackedFully trackedFully trackedFully trackedFully trackedGuangzhao Hydropower Station

Huangdeng Hydropower Station

Longtan Hydropower Station

Goupitan Hydropower Station

Dagangshan Hydropower Station

QBT

Dongzhuang Reservoir

Ertan Hydropower Station

Laxiwa Hydropower Station

Crane Beach Hydropower Station

Wudongde Hydropower Station

Xiluodu Hydropower Plant

Xiaowan Hydropower Station

Jinping I Hydropower Station

Remarks

Availability

Dam Height

Project

No.

Hundreds of cores running in parallel

109+ degrees of freedom

Open-close iteration

Elastoplasticity
Damage
Seepage
Temperature
Stress
One iteration

 - 说明: 1Two non-linear properties

 - 说明: 1Efficient parallel running

 - 说明: 1MESHCUT
arbitrary mesh cut

 - 说明: 1Super-large scale

 - 说明: 1Three couplings

 - 说明: 1Meteorological change process
Bedrock excavation process
Backfill support process
Placing and hardening process
Temperature control process
Grouting and anchoring process
Aging deformation process
Water storage & seepage process
Long-term operation process
 - 说明: 1Nine processes

 - 说明: 1SAPTIS Simulation System



Pre-processing
Simulation analysis
Post-processing
 - 说明: 1

△ SAPTIS software system for dam simulation calculation applied to the Xiluodu Hydropower Plant

2. Conservation of Carbon Sink Resources

IMG_289

 

Apart from emission reduction through hydropower projects, forests, grasslands, oceans, lakes and wetlands are also important natural resources absorbing and solidifying carbon dioxide and regulating climate. IWHR experts have made significant contributions to the development and conservation of these carbon sink resources through theoretical innovation and technology R&D.

With respect to water ecosystem protection and restoration, IWHR experts have developed the Technical Guide to Water Ecosystem Restoration, put forward a river & lake health indicator system and relevant standards in line with the characteristics of rivers and lakes in China, and carried out assessment of 36 rivers and lakes including the Yellow River mainstream, the Huaihe River mainstream and the Songhua River mainstream.

Composition of a circle
The two sides of a circle represent the scores on the fish indicator and the macrobenthos indicator respectively at the sampling site, which are shown in corresponding colors.
Assessment of the overall condition
River segments in mountainous areas
Large macrobenthos
Fish
River segments in cities
Large macrobenthos
Fish




 - 说明: 11River types Species IndicatorsNumber of species
Shannon-Wiener Index
Berger-Parker dominance index
Number of taxa
Ratio of EPT taxa at the rank of family
BWMP Index
Number of taxa
Number of species
Shannon-Wiener Index
Berger-Parker dominance index
Number of taxa
Ratio of EPT taxa at the rank of family
BWMP Index
Number of taxa

River segments in cities

River segments in mountainous areas

Large macrobenthos

Fish

Fish

Large macrobenthos

Gradation of health indicatorsGradation of health indicators
Ideal (80-100 points)
Healthy (60-80 points)
Sub-healthy (40-60 points)
Unhealthy (20-40 points)
Ill (0-20 points)
No data
Results of the Assessment Report Card

 - 说明: 3

△ Evaluation of the health of rivers in Beijing

IWHR experts have conducted research on how to establish methods of simulating water-salt balance in inland lakes and ecological response, built a mathematical model of coupled water-salt balance to solve the problems with inland lakes in China, such as water volume reduction and salinity increase, and determined the scientific lake water volume and salinity thresholds suitable for spirulina growth through a case study of the lakes where the world’s three major spirulina naturally grow.

 

Changes in algae

 - 说明: 2Lake water ecological response - 说明: 3Changes in lake water-salt balance

 - 说明: 3Changes in hydrological regime

 - 说明: 3Changes in water quality - 说明: 2Declines in water level

 - 说明: 1Increases in salinity - 说明: 1A warm and dry climate is the main reason for rapid shrinkage of Chenghai Lake

 - 说明: QQ截图20200326092136

△ Changes in water-salt balance in inland lakes and their impacts on ecology

With respect to grassland protection, IWHR experts have developed a complete set of water supply system for solar photovoltaic pastures by integrating new energy, automation and water transport and distribution technologies, thus addressing drinking water supply for decentralized nomadic residents, greatly increasing grassland productivity, mitigating grassland degradation and reducing GHG emissions.

IMG_20180831_090645637~4

△ New energy water supply equipment at grassland in North China

 

3. Reduction of Emissions from Sewage Treatment

IMG_295

 

To reduce increased GHG emissions from sewage treatment, IWHR experts have developed centralized and decentralized water supply facilities through biological slow filtration, water treatment equipment through biological slow filtration and automated rough filtration – refined filtration water treatment equipment, and carried out demonstration and application of micro-polluted water treatment in rural areas in Gansu, Hubei, Guizhou and Fujian, which have cut down rural water pollution while reducing GHGs from sewage treatment.

△ Centralized water treatment through biological slow filtration

4. Soil and Water Conservation

IMG_299

 

Soil and water conservation is an important means to reduce soil erosion, protect and promote vegetation recovery and then strengthen carbon sink, and also an important foundation for water ecosystem protection and construction. IWHR has long been committed to the research on sediment and water and soil conservation, and has delved into issues in the process of soil erosion, transport and sediment in different river basins, such as dynamic mechanisms, mechanisms of sediment and runoff reduction through water conservation and impacts of treatment through water conservation on the evolution of river systems.

IWHR experts have probed into the sediment transport law, flow and sediment regulation measures, evolution trends of erosion and deposition in downstream rivers and the relationship between rivers and lakes in connection with the TGP, flow and sediment regulation system, downstream river and beach treatment in connection with the Yellow River, and comprehensive management measures for the Huaihe River, providing powerful technical support for river management.

IWHR experts have expounded the dynamic process and regulatory mechanism of soil erosion under the action of water and wind, developed a number of soil conservation measures and technologies and formed a system of technologies for comprehensive control of soil erosion and ecological restoration based on small river basins.
It has emphatically studied the mechanism and process of flow and sediment changes in rivers and lakes against the backdrop of global climate change, and conducted the research on soil erosion mechanism and process forecasting, automation and information application in soil conservation test observations, and soil erosion prevention and control technologies. IWHR continues to conduct comprehensive control and demonstration of soil erosion in areas with different types of erosion in China, and formed control technologies for the Loess Plateau region in Northwest China, black earth region in Northeast China, water and soil conservation region in the upper and middle Yangtze River and red soil region in South China.

Rural complex with dam systems at its core - 说明: 1Tianjiagou Basin, Jingchuan County - 说明: 8Planting and cultivation mix

Leisure & recreation

Songjiagou Basin, Ansai District - 说明: 8Protected agricultureDam and slope combination

Anjiagou Basin, Dingxi City - 说明: 8Fruits and vegetables planting

Water and fertilizer coupling

Jiuyuangou Basin, Suide County - 说明: 8Food production

Immediate sediment use

Sightseeing agricultural model of ecology and leisure

 - 说明: 9Modern agricultural model of efficient facilities

 - 说明: 9Characteristic agricultural model of planting and cultivation

 - 说明: 9Conventional agricultural model of food production - 说明: 9Application of hierarchical water conservation and water and fertilizer coupling to dams
Dam sediment removal, flood prevention and harvest guarantee technologies
Agricultural industrialization model of flow and sediment resources in gullies
Warping dam system planning and layout models
Dam system cascade effect and flood control safety
Optical design technologies for water release works at key dams
Multi-dimensional drainage and rapid construction technologies for warping dams
Cascade effect of energy dissipation through peak regulation in the warping dam system
Mechanism of erosion prevention and control through gullies
Cascade effect of flow and sediment regulation through gully regulation
Sustainable development strategy for flood control, harvest guarantee and industrialization through cascade dams

 - 说明: 2Dam system cascade planning, design and construction technologies

 - 说明: 2Diversion and reduction of channel runoff erosion through dam system cascade

 - 说明: 2Applications

 - 说明: 1Technologies

 - 说明: 1Theories

 - 说明: 1

△ Key technologies and models for erosion control of gullies in Loess Plateau

Conclusion - 说明: 9

Despite the impacts and challenges posed by climate change, we continue to deepen our understanding and practical exploration of water and climate change, and will never stop their pace of seeking social civilization progress, building rivers of well-being, pursuing beautiful life and promoting sustainable development.

 

Source: IWHR Division of International Cooperation

Technically supported by: Department of Water Resources, Research Center on Flood and Drought Disaster Reduction, Department of Water Environment,
Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Sediment Research, IRTCES, etc.


Read more:
There is no information!

     

A-1 Fuxing Road,Haidian District,100038 Beijing; +86-10-68781650 (office); +86-10-68412316 (fax); dic@iwhr.com

Produced By CMS 网站群内容管理系统 publishdate:2020/04/30 11:31:48