The Laboratory of Hydraulics is responsible for the research on hydraulic problems arising from large-sized hydro projects and key programs funded by the Ministry of Water Resources, the State Power Corporation of China, China Yangtze Three Gorges Project Development Corporation and other Hydropower Development Corporations, China National Nuclear Corporation, National Science Foundation Commission, and so on. The main research activities of the Department cover the general layout of hydro projects, hydraulics of spillways for high dams, energy dissipation and erosions protection, flow induced vibration, cavitation and air entrainment, river ice, hydraulic transient flow simulation and control on hydropower project, pumped storage project and long distance water transfer project, optimization of thermal/nuclear power plant layout and other industrial cooling systems, investigation of the fundamental theory of thermo-stratified/mixing flow and its applications, studies on fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of large scale cooling (or dry) towers, hydraulic field observation , development of instrumentation for physical model test and field observation. Methods adopted in research work include physical model test, numerical simulation and prototype observation. Decades research papers and technical reports are published annually. Seven research findings have been awarded the state Prizes of Progress in Science and Technology, Innovation in Science and 70 achievements on the Prizes from Ministries or Provinces during the last 20 years.
The Laboratory of Hydraulics includes five parts, which are the First Laboratory for hydraulics, the Second Laboratory (under construction), the Third Laboratory, the Fourth Laboratory, and the Laboratory of High-speed Flow Research.
Brief introduction the First Laboratory:
With a total area of 6000m2, the room is 150m in length and 39m in width.
With underground effective storage of 4000m3, the underground reservoir is 70m in length and 18m in width.
With 3 sets of water supply systems and 2 water tanks, and the total water supply capacity is 1.7m3/s.
Function: hydraulics modeling experiment of hydraulic structure
Profile of the Second Laboratory (under construction):
The principal room is 153m in length and 60m in width;
A tidal wave pool is 110m in length and 42m in width;
Special equipment for launching cooling water issues research is established;
A parameter laboratory;
Environmental wind tunnel flume;
Function: hydrodynamics modeling experiments of outfall and lake environment, hydrodynamics modeling experiments of sedimentation and tide, cooling water experiments of thermal/nuclear power station, cooling tower experiments.
Profile of the Third Laboratory:
The total area is 3000m3;
With storage capacity of 3500m3, the reservoir is 50m in length, 18m in width and 4m in depth;
Function: hydraulics modeling experiments of hydraulic structure
Profile of the Fourth Laboratory:
With building area of 900m, the room is 50m in length and 18m in width;
The round shaped reservoir can approximately store water of 1000m3;
With 4 water pumps, the total water supply capacity is around 700L/s;
Function: hydraulics modeling experiments of hydraulic structure
Profile of the Laboratory of High-speed Flow Research
With building area of 360m2, the room is 30m in length, 12m in width and 16m in height;
The room has 3 floors: the ground floor is mainly for water supply equipment, the second floor is for model machining , and the third floor is laboratory;
Reservoir with storage capacity of 450m3 is established underground outside the room;
Circulating water tunnel and vacuum tank is established in the room;
Function: hydraulics (cavitation) experiments of hydraulic structure
Development for academic elite: from 2004 to 2006, the technological capability of staffs is enhanced greatly, and 5 members are promoted to senior engineer of professorial class, and 10 members are promoted to engineer.
Postgraduate development: for the recent 3 years, 5 doctors and 7 masters have been developed. Two post-doctorates, 4 doctors and 2 masters are on reading. Three doctors and 3 masters are recruited in 2007.
Important achievement and research progress
1. Research on Key Hydraulics Technological Problems in High Head, Large Discharge Spillway Tunnel and Long-Distance Water Diversion Systems
Theory analysis, experimental researches and numerical simulations are integrated to conduct series researches on flow characteristics and flow cavitation characteristics of high head, large discharge spillway tunnel (50m/s);
Series researches are conducted on theory and experiment of hydraulics stability and system security of high head and long-distance water diversion system;
It is of great scientific significance and tremendous application value to solve the key hydraulics technological problems of high head, large discharge spillway tunnel and long-distance diversion tunnel.
2. Ordinary Pressure/Vacuum Tank Reduced Pressure Test Research on No. 3 Spillway Tunnel of Xiluodu Hydropower Station
Ordinary Pressure Test: with 1:45-scale hydraulic model, numerous tests and researches have been made on pressure tunnel section of spillway tunnel as below: free-pressure flow transition, flow state in free surface flow tunnel, pressure distribution, flow velocity distribution, layout and profile of aerators, flip bucket and energy dissipation effects, etc.
Vacuum Tank Reduced Pressure Test: reduced pressure model test research is conducted for the high velocity section of spillway tunnel. The flow pattern, pressure distribution and cavitation characteristics under low pressure state are observed and analyzed. Optimum layout and sectional profile are proposed.
3. Optimization Test Research on Right-Bank Vertex Spillway Tunnel of Yellow River Gongboxia Hydropower Station
The spillway tunnel is reconstructed from diversion tunnel, and it is China抯 first spillway structure adopting the technology of vertex flow energy dissipation;
Researches are conducted on structure choice, optimization test and two-phase flow model similarity;
A series of innovative research results are achieved
4. Prototype Observation of Permanent Ship Lock of the Three Gorges Project
Instruments embedment for hydraulics observation project of water conveyance systems;
Installation and calibrate of temporary monitoring facilities for upstream and downstream channel, lock gate and valves;
Observation and data processing and analysis during different operation period.
Hydraulics characteristics of lock chamber filling and emptying process ;
Valve section filling and emptying characteristics;
Open and close characteristics of valve and leaf gate;
Static and dynamic characteristics of South No.4 Valve, South No.6 Valve and South No.4 Leaf Gate;
surge wave performance;
Wave and flow velocity of upstream and downstream approach channel;
Optimized operation of the first and last level lock chamber.
5. Orifice Tunnel Prototype Observation of Xiaolangdi Hydropower Station
Hydraulics observation of orifice tunnel section;
Vibration observation of eccentric-hinge tainter gate;
Hydraulics observation of sluice chamber section;
Wind velocity observation of emergency gate shaft.
Water level in observation:
Orifice tunnel No.1: 210m and 235m;
Orifice tunnel No.2: 245m.
6. Numerical Simulation Development System for Turbulent Flow
?948? Project of Ministry of Water Resources;
Based on secondary development of commercial software FLUETN, the turbulent flow numerical simulation system is established. Turbulent flow numerical simulation involved in hydraulics field is conducted for large-scale water conservancy project in order to directly serve the water conservancy construction.
7. Research on Flood Discharge from the Dam of Baihetan Hydropower Station
Through 1:100-scale integral hydraulic model tests, series researches were conducted on the layout plan for water discharge from dam body in Baihetan Hydropower Station. Taking pressure distribution of the plunge pool slab and maximal impact pressure as technical indexes, we made multi-plan contrast test researches, and proposed optimized layout plan for surface spillway tunnel on dam body. Additionally, experimental research, analysis and demonstration were conducted on the maximum possible discharge capacity of the dam body.
8. Series Research on Hydraulics Problems of Spillway Tunnel in Xiaowan Project
In order to solve the air entrainment and cavitation prevention layout problems of free flow spillway tunnel with large unit width discharge, low Froude number and mild-slope, the aerator layout type of 搗ariable base slopes after bucket? is proposed after optimization experimental research. This layout properly solves the problem of aerator choking. Presently, the plan has been ratified by designing company and is likely to be applied to the construction.
9. Research on Hydraulic Problems of Ecological Fish Passage in Beijing Shangzhuang Sluice
Referring to the practical application experience of established fish ladder , ecological fish passage of Shangzhuang New Sluice adopts the vertical-seam type, which is relatively popular in the world at present. Additionally, large scale hydraulic model test is conducted. Hydraulic design parameters of vertical-seam type fishway and baffle type have been optimized. The proposed layout plan of vertical-seam type fish passage with guide board can not only ensure proper water flow, but also can avoid the accumulation of floating debris on surface so as to achieve proper fish-passing and scenery function.
Presently, the project has been completed, and it has become one of few fish passage projects in north area of China.
10. Experimental Research on Multi-Layer Intake Stop Log Gate of Jinping No.1 Hydropower Station
The maximum dam height of Jinping No.1 Hydropower Station is 305.0m and the water head under normal operation can reach 80m. In order to relieve the negative influence on downstream ecosystem caused by non-natural temperature water flow discharged, for the first time, the layout plan adopts stop log gate inside the intake tower to achieve different-layer water-taking. In this way, the reservoir surface water can be diverted for use and the temperature of discharged water can be increased.
With a 1:20-scale normal pressure hydraulic model, a series of researches were conducted on the hydraulic characteristics of different stop log gate. The result demonstrated that the given plan can achieve multilayer water-taking purpose.
11. Integral Model Experimental Research and Its Numerical Simulation on Jinghong Hydraulic Floating Ship Lift
As a new type navigation structure, the hydraulic floating ship lift is adopted in Jinghong hydropower station. Compared with traditional ship lift, hydraulic floating ship lift is characterized by many superiorities, such as safety, low investment, and simple structure.
Adopting research method of integrating numerical simulation model and physical model, the project analyzes three issues which affect the operation stability of the hydraulic floating ship lift, i.e. (1) the gap between the shaft and the floating balancing weight, (2)the bottom shape and outline of ship chamber and floating balancing weight, and (3) opening and closing characteristics of filling and emptying valve on water conveyance pipeline. The research results provide a guideline to the design and operation of Jinghong hydraulic floating type ship lift.
12. Experimental Research on Dynamic Load and Flow-Induced Vibration of Emergency Sluice Gate in Xiluodu Tunnel Spillway
Xiluodu spillway tunnel is characterized by large discharge capacity, high flow velocity, and high using frequency, so whether the emergency gate can be closed in dynamic water and the flow-induced vibration matter under emergency condition attract much more concerns in the design and operation.
According to gravity similarity criterion, the research establishes a 1:25-scale spillway tunnel model and a hydraulic similarity model of emergency gate. Studies are conducted on the gate-closing and gate-opening force with different friction coefficient, so as to provide base to the selection of hoist.
Another 1:25-scale hydroelastic similar model of emergency gate is built, and finite element method model are established. Research on dynamic stress response and acceleration response during the course of closing of emergency gate in dynamic water is conducted, and the research results show that the dynamic stress response value during gate closing course is too small to yield harmful vibration under experimental conditions.
13. Plan Optimization Research on Conduit Network for Water Transfer of Beijing Section in Middle-Route of South-To-North Water Transfer Project
The water transfer route of Beijing section is located in plain area, with total length of about 80km. Two methods may be adopted for water transfer, one is whole section open channel gravity flow transfer, the other is pressurized water transfer in pumping station The research group conducts the research on conduit network for water transfer plan of Beijing section and reduces the investment from over 9 billion to over 6 billion. Presently, the conduit network for water transfer plan has already replaced the original open channel transfer plan, and is being under construction. In order to ensure the safe operation of conduit network for water transfer plan, the group successively conducted entire system research on hydraulic transient calculation, and flowing physical model test of pumping station forebay. Being sponsored by National Special Fund for Social Commonweal, the Laboratory conducted 搕he Development of Hydraulic Control Computer Digital Three-Dimension Real-Time Simulation System of Middle-Route of South-To-North Water Transfer Project?. Recently, the project of 揈lectronic Channel Platform and Application for Middle-route of South-to-north Water Transfer Project? accomplished by the association of the Laboratory and Prof. Wang Guangqian from Tsinghua University passed the achievement appraisal of Ministry of Education, and the conclusion is that the research achievements generally reaches international advanced level, and the achievement is applying for Scientific Progress Award of Ministry of Education.
14. Research on Ice Forecast Expert System of the Yellow River in Section From Ningxia Automomous Region To Inner Mongolic Autonomous Region
Sponsored by Special Fund for Yellow River Management, Hydraulic Control Laboratory of Hydraulics Department conducted the research on the 揇evelopment of Ice Forecast Expert System of Ning-Meng River Section of Yellow River?. The research developed an ice real-time forecast expert system integrating the collection, transfer, processing of ice regime as well as water regime information, forecast, consultation and decision of ice regime and water regime for Ningxia located in upstream of Yellow River and Inner Mongolia channel segment. The appraisal conclusion on the achievement delivered by experts from Science and Technology Department of Ministry of Water Resources is that the ice forecast for complicated river conditions reaches international advanced level. The achievement won the second award of Dayu Award of Ministry of Water Resources in 2007.
15. Research on Local Resistance and Its Adjacent Influence of Circulating Water Supply System in Thermal Power Station and Nuclear Power Station
The design of water supply system of China抯 power station always lacks hydraulic calculation parameters and methods relying on own scientific research achievements. The local resistance coefficient sources used by power design companies are not identical to great extent. Many coefficient values exceed too much and matters like local resistance adjacent influence are ignored. Consequently, China抯 pipeline design is inclined to be conservative. In this respect, our institute conducted the research on local resistance and its adjacent influence of circulating water supply system in thermal power station and nuclear power station. With the ratification of Ministry of Power, the research achievement has been spread for trial application within electric power system in 1996. The final achievements of two periods have been compiled into The Hydraulic Design Technological Regulations of Thermal Power Station and The Cooling Water System Design Technological Regulations of Thermal Power Station.
The power station practical operation validated that compared with previous hydraulic calculation, the loss due to local resistance reduces by about 44%, the gross water head reduces by about 30%, and dynamic water pump lift is saved by about 10%.
The project won the second award of China Electric Power Technology Award.
16. Physical Model Experiment on Cooling Water and Low Level Radioactive Waste Water of Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Station
Liaoning HongYanhe Nuclear Power Station is located near Wentuozi of Liaodong bay. The planning total installation capacity is 6?1000MW, which is constructed in two periods and the installation capacity of the first period is 4?1000MW. The power generating unit adopts direct current water supply system with sea water serving as cooling water. The liquid radioactive effluent from the nuclear power station will be discharged into ocean with circulating cooling water.
The main research work is simulating the transport and diffusion characteristics of cooling water and low level radioactive waste water in the environmental water by physical model experiment. The research results can be applied as a guideline for the optimum design of water intake and outlet of nuclear power station, as well as for the influence appraisal of water environment.
17. Research on Sediment, Debris and Pollutant Prevention of Water Intakes in Thermal/Nuclear Power Plants
This study is a hydraulics application research, and it is the key scientific project of State Power Corporation. The research is proposed for the 揟hree Prevention? issue which is frequently encountered in circulating cooling water intake of China抯 thermal/nuclear power station. The sediment, debris and pollutant have a negative influence on the safe and economic operation of power station. Hereby, 揟hree Prevention? refers to sediment prevention, debris prevention and pollution prevention of power station water intake. 揇ebris? refers to grass, branch, paper, flake ice, ice block, plastic substance, and all kinds of daily junk floating substance. 揚ollution? refers to thermal pollution and low radioactive pollution.
The ultimate purpose of the research is to provide guiding rules and criterion to water intake 揟hree Prevention? design in thermal/nuclear power station.
18. Research on Water Intake and Outlet of Vietnam Jinpu Power Station
The Plant lies in the north of Viet Nam, 107o21? in the East Longitude and 21o01? in the North Latitude. The installation capacity of the Power Station is 2?300MW. Seawater direct current water supply system is adopted for circulating cooling water, so the seawater of adjacent sea area is used for cooling water source.
The project is generally contracted by Harbin Power Engineering Co., Ltd. The main purpose of the research is to study the layout principles of water intake and outlet for safe operation. Modeling tests and numerical calculations were conducted to provide scientific basis to water intake and outlet design of Power Station.
19. Research on Thermal Resistance Characteristic of Seawater Cooling Tower In Zhejiang Guohua Ninghai Second Period Extensive Construction
In order to reduce the thermal pollution on sea area due to water discharge and protect ocean environment and ecology, the second period construction of Ninghai Power Station adopted seawater circulating cooling system. Since large-sized seawater cooling tower was adopted for the first time in China, the project conducted a series of experiments. Researches on 4 objects and 7 specific issues were conducted to ensure the economic and safe operation of Power Station. The research results provided important basis to China抯 design and construction of cooling tower.
20. Resistance Model Experiment Research of Natural Cooling Tower Via Which Flue Gas Discharged
The flue gas discharging pipelines may have resistance against the air flow inside the tower. With velocity over 10m/s, the flue gas at discharge outlet of the pipe has higher momentum than air flow inside the tower, meanwhile, the temperature of the flue gas is higher than that of air flow, so the flue gas has an additional extracting force against air flow inside the tower. Under this condition, it is a new question that how to design the cooling tower. The project provides diffusion characteristic of flue gas inside the tower by cold state simulation and hot state test.
Concentrating on the forefront of academic disciplines development, the laboratory of hydraulics has conducted extensive academic exchange activities with experts and scholars from all over the world. According to incomplete statistics, in recent 2 years, 20 person-time successively went to USA, Italy, Korea, Russia, etc. for exchange and visit, published over 10 academic theses, and many experts delivered theme report. Experts from USA, Italy, Australia, etc. successively came to visit the Key Laboratory and deliver academic reports in recent 2 years.
Mr. Marmullar, official from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, came to the Department of Hydraulics for academic exchange (2007)
Mr. F. LEMP蒖I萊E, French scholar, visited the Department of Hydraulics (2005)
Prof. Shen Hongdao, from American Clarkson University, visited the Department of Hydraulics (2007)